Monday, February 29, 2016

Correcting the Clocks

"A leap year (also known as an intercalary year or a bissextile year) is a year containing one additional day (or, in the case of lunisolar calendars, a month) added to keep the calendar year synchronized with the astronomical or seasonal year.  Because seasons and astronomical events do not repeat in a whole number of days, calendars that have the same number of days in each year drift over time with respect to the event that the year is supposed to track. By inserting (also called intercalating) an additional day or month into the year, the drift can be corrected. A year that is not a leap year is called a common year.

For example, in the Gregorian calendar, each leap year has 366 days instead of the usual 365, by extending February to 29 days rather than the common 28. Similarly, in the lunisolar Hebrew calendar, Adar Aleph, a 13th lunar month, is added seven times every 19 years to the twelve lunar months in its common years to keep its calendar year from drifting through the seasons.

The name "leap year" comes from the fact that while a fixed date in the Gregorian calendar normally advances one day of the week from one year to the next, the day of the week in a leap year will advance two days (from March onwards) due to the extra day added at the end of February (thus "leaping over" one of the days in the week). For example, Christmas fell on Tuesday in 2001, Wednesday in 2002, and Thursday in 2003 but then "leapt" over Friday to fall on a Saturday in 2004."
Leap Year - Wikipedia  

Our lives are ordered by time in many ways.  We have personal and idiosyncratic experiences and conceptions of duration and time.  Our social and employment lives are strictly governed by clocks and calendars. The flow of the seasons effects our personal well being, access to food, our comforts and discomforts.  Our personal participation in the temporal dimension is limited by our birth and death dates. 

The subject of "time" has been of serious interest to philosophers, thinkers, scientists, poets, and mystics for over 4,000 years.  Here are two good books, written in a fairly accessible style, that I recommend:

Time, the Familiar Stranger   By J. T. Frazier.  University of Massachusetts Press, 2012.  Index, bibliography, notes, 408 pages.  ISBN: 9781558498594. 

Time and the Art of Living  By Robert Grudin.  Mariner Books, 1997.  Index, 250 pages.  ISBN: 978039689814. 

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