"Chang San-Feng Tai Chi Chuan treatise states "What are the thirteen postures? Peng (Wardoff), Lu (Rollback), Ghi (Press), An (Push), Chai (Pluck), Lie (Split), Zou (Elbow-Stroke), Kau (Shoulder-Stroke), these are the Eight Trigrams. Jinn Bu (Forward), Twe Bu (Backward), Dsao Gu (Beware of the Left), Yu Pan (Look to the Right), Dsung Dien (Central EQuilibrium), these are the Five Elements. Wardoff, Rollback, Press, and Push are Chyan (Heaven), Kuen (Earth), Kann (Water), and Lii (Fire) are the four main sides. Pluck, Split, Elbow-Stroke, and Shoulder-Stroke are Shiunn (Wind), Jenn (Thunder), Duey (Lake), and Genn (Mountain), the four diagonal corners. Forward, Backward, Beware of the Left, Look to the Right and Central Equilibrium are Gin (Metal), Moo (Wood), Sui (Water), For (Fire), and Tu (Earth). All together they are thirteen postures."
"The eight postures are the eight basic fighting moves of the art, and can be assigned directions according to where the opponents force is moved. Wardoff rebounds the opponent back in the direction from which he came from. Rollback leads him further that he intended to go in the direction he was attacking. Split and Shoulder-Stroke lead him forward and deflect him slightly sideward. Pluck and Elbow-Stroke can be done so as to catch the opponent just as he is starting forward, and strike or unbalance him diagonally to his rear. Push and Press deflect the opponent and attack at right angles to his motion. The five directions refer to stance, footwork, and fighting strategy. They concern the way one moves around in response to the opponent's attack, and how one sets up one's own attacks."
- Dr. Yang Jwing-Ming. Advanced Yang Style Tai Chi Chuan. Volume One: Tai Chi Theory and Tai Chi Jing. By Dr. Yang, Jwing-Ming. Boston, Massachusetts, Yang's Martial Arts Academy, YMAA, 1986. Glossary, 276 pages. ISBN: Unknown. This book includes a detailed explanation of the concepts of Jing, Yi, and Chi; and an outstanding discussion of the Jings (pp. 68-210) of Tai Chi Chuan. VSCL. Quotes from p. 9, and p. 253 (Appendix 13).
Tai Chi Chuan Martial Power: Advanced Yang Style. By Dr. Wang, Jwing Ming. Foreword by Tsung-Hwa Jou. Wolfeboro, New Hampshire, YMAA Publication Center, 3rd Edition, 1986, 1996, 2015. Index, glossary, bibliography, 274 pages. ISBN: 978-1594392948. VSCL.
|Taijiquan Jings||Eight Trigrams and Five Elements|
|Wardoff (Peng)||Heaven (Chyan)|
|Rollback (Lu)||Earth (Kuen)|
|Press (Ghi)||Water (Kann)|
|Push (An)||Fire (Lii)|
|Pluck (Chai)||Wind (Shiunn)|
|Split (Lie)||Thunder (Jenn)|
|Elbow-Stroke (Zou)||Lake (Duey)|
|Shoulder-Stroke (Kau)||Mountain (Genn)|
|Forward (Jinn Bu)||Metal (Gin)|
|Backward (Twe Bu)||Wood (Moo)|
|Left (Sou Gu)||Water (Sui)|
|Right (Yu Pan)||Fire (For)|
|Center (Sung Dien)||Earth (Tu)|