I attended the AFAA (American Fitness Association of America) weekend workshop on Practical Mat Pilates. The workshop was from 9-6 pm at the California Family Fitness gym in Roseville. Roseville is 20 miles west of Sacramento.
Carlos Requejo, an experienced and highly qualified master trainer, taught us 26 basic Pilates exercises, led two workouts, and provided us with very good individual tips on the movements. We learned a great deal about the kineseology of the movements.
Pilates emphasizes breathing in through the nose and out through the mouth. The exhalation should be a bit more forceful. One should exhale like they were blowing out a candle, blowing up a balloon, fogging a mirror, or hissing in the back of the throat. It is like "warriors breath" in yoga. The idea is to engage the deepest transverse abdominals and rectus abdominis when you exhale.
There are numerous specialized systems for breathing in Chinese Qigong.